13 Native Flowers for Illinois [Top Species]

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White Pines Forest State Park Spring Creek, Illinois
Illinois offers a wide range of habitats to approximately 54,000 species, 500 of which are considered to be threatened or endangered. I, IvoShandor, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

From the Windy City and Route 66 to the Garden of the Gods in Shawnee National Forest, Illinois is a land where industry, culture, and nature collide in the middle of everything. Situated in the fertile expanse between two of North America’s greatest freshwater resources, the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River, the Prairie State is home to approximately 54,000 species in a wide range of habitats. Nearly 500 of these life forms are protected as threatened or endangered. All (including the piping plover, the rusty-patched bumblebee, the gray wolf, and ourselves) depend on the indigenous plant communities that are the foundation of the ecosystems in which we live, work, and play.

Sadly, the prosperity of Illinois’ shipping, transportation, and agricultural industries has come at the cost of some of the state’s most precious natural resources. 90% of Illinois’ original wetlands and 99.9% of its prairies have been lost, to say nothing of its forests and waterways. Rampant development, decreased water quality and sedimentation from hydrological modifications, and the spread of invasive species have resulted in severe degradation and destruction of critical habitats throughout the state.

Illinois’ rich biodiversity is in crisis, but the people of Illinois are working tirelessly to preserve remnant lands and restore those that have been lost– because 90% of the state’s land is privately owned, the future of these imperiled ecosystems depends on cooperation and good management practices.

Anyone with plantable space can contribute simply by growing native plants. Native wildflowers filter pollution from the air and water, mitigate stormwater runoff, and provide vital food and shelter for wildlife. They also reduce the demand for chemical fertilizers or pesticides, conserve water, and give a unique pride of place to a home landscape. Here are some of the best and most beautiful native flowers for your Illinois garden!

1) Prairie goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis)

Prairie goldenrod flowers
Prairie goldenrod produces fine, yellow flowers from July to November; many insects visit them for their pollen and nectar. Lydia Fravel / CC BY 2.0

Compact, attractive, and well-behaved in a garden setting, Solidago nemoralis (variously called gray, prairie, field, or dwarf goldenrod) is sorely underutilized in home landscapes. Despite popular misconceptions, goldenrods do not cause seasonal allergies or hay fever– the real culprit is inconspicuous, green-flowered ragweed (Ambrosia spp.), which blooms at the same time. In fact, plants in the genus Solidago might cure your ills– they have known diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and healing properties. One Ojibwe name for goldenrod, gizisomukiki, translates to “sun medicine.”

Prairie goldenrod is beautiful to boot, and its faunal associations might just make you want to pull up a lawn chair. Its fine, feathery silver-green leaves are borne on upright, downy stems 1.5 – 3 ft tall, and gracefully arching plumes of bright yellow-gold blooms give it a flared, vase-like shape. Narrow, one-sided flower panicles with both ray and disc florets bloom from July through November and are visited by a wide variety of insects for both pollen and nectar.

Solidago is a keystone genus in IL that hosts 104 species of Lepidoptera and 42 pollen-specialist bees. Goldenrod plantings are marvelous to observe in the fall months when they are buzzing with pollinators, bedecked with monarch butterflies, and rustling with migrating songbirds foraging for insects or seeds. Prairie goldenrod is a sun-loving species of dry upland prairies, open woods, sandy savannas, fallow fields, and areas along railroads– it is found throughout Illinois.

This plant likes dry to medium, well-drained sandy or clay loams, and tolerates poor soils, shade, and drought once established. It’s lovely in rock or habitat gardens, naturalized landscapes, and wildflower meadows. Other Solidago species to consider include showy goldenrod (S. speciosa), elm-leaved goldenrod (S. ulmifolia), and zigzag goldenrod (S. flexicaulis).

2) Dooryard violet (Viola sororia)

Dooryard violet in bloom
The dooryard violet is a modest plant that grows easily in medium-wet, well-drained soil. Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren / CC BY 2.0

In 1907, school children in Illinois voted for a state flower– the winner was the blue violet, and in 1908 Senator Andrew J. Jackson introduced a bill making it official. There have been more than 2 dozen violet species recorded in the Prairie State, but the most common is the charming, familiar dooryard violet. Sometimes unfairly denigrated as a weed, this common annual (or short-lived perennial) is traditionally associated with modesty and decency. It’s a lovely groundcover, an ecological boon, and a nutritious edible all in one. The glossy, heart-shaped leaves of the dooryard violet reach 6 – 10 inches tall, and its richly hued, pale-throated blossoms nod slightly on bowed stems– flower color varies from blue to purple, pink or white.

Dooryard violets like moist, dappled shade (though they adapt to most light conditions) and they thrive in areas where other plants may struggle, such as around the bases of trees where light is low, soil is compacted, or the tree roots are outcompeting nearby flora (especially turf) for resources. Why not leave (or plant) violets in this fairy ring? Viola sororia is a larval host for fritillary butterflies, including the state-threatened regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia), and many songbirds, gamebirds, and small mammals enjoy the fruit capsules or seeds. Its edible foliage is high in vitamins A and C; just ½ cup of violet leaves is reported to contain as much vitamin C as 3 oranges! The blossoms can be eaten in salads, candied, or cooked into preserves– they’re also stunning as a garnish for cakes or other desserts.

Dooryard violets bloom from March to May, and are easily grown in average, medium-wet, well-drained soil– they don’t spread by runners, but freely reseed themselves and will fill a space in optimal conditions. Consider also the bird’s foot violet (Viola pedata), the field pansy (Viola bicolor), and the yellow forest violet (Viola pubescens).

3) White heath aster (Symphyotrichum ericoides)

White heath aster flowers
White heath asters can reach heights of up to 3 feet and thrive in full or partial sun. Patrick Alexander from Las Cruces, NM, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons

Asters get their name from the Greek and Latin words for star, and from the Greek goddess Astraea, whose tears of stardust saturated the earth and sprouted flowers with supernatural beauty. Symphyotrichum ericoides, a perennial American aster, lives up to the legend– its lilting, fine-leaved stems are engulfed by clouds of tiny, snowy-white (sometimes pink-tinged) blooms with yellow centers and a celestial charm. White heath aster has a naturally dense, bushy growth habit, and reaches heights of 1 – 3 ft. It’s lovely as a cloaking groundcover or cascading over a rock wall. The flowers, which are made up of numerous ray and disc florets, bloom from July through November and are irresistible to pollinators.

Symphyotrichum is a keystone genus in Illinois– it’s a larval host for at least 100 species of Lepidoptera, and 33 pollen-specialist bees depend upon it for survival. S. ericoides’ ornamental qualities make it shine in the horticultural trade, and it has yielded several high-profile cultivars and hybrids– notably ‘Snow Flurry,’ ‘Blue Star,’ and the Chicago Botanic Garden’s ‘Bridal Veil.’

Wild plants grow throughout the state in prairies, old fields, and pastures; this species is an effective colonizer of open disturbed sites but is found in high-quality habitats as well. In a garden setting, white heath aster appreciates full or partial sun and well-drained, dry soil. It has an impressively high drought tolerance. Other asters suitable for home landscapes in IL include smooth aster (S. laeve), calico aster (S. lateriflorum), New England aster (S. novae-angliae), and aromatic aster (S. oblongifolium), among others.

4) Sweet coneflower (Rudbeckia subtomentosa)

Sweet coneflowers in bloom
Sweet coneflower, a native perennial, is attractive to songbirds, bees, and butterflies. AfroBrazilian: Aleksandrs Balodis, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Distinguishable by its faintly sweet, anise-scented flowers and deeply-lobed leaves, sweet or fragrant coneflower is a fabulous native perennial for home landscapes. Its masses of buttery-yellow blooms are up to 3 inches across with rich, chocolatey-purple center cones that are packed with disc florets. The flowerheads are broader than those of Rudbeckia triloba (brown-eyed susan), with longer, more abundant petaloid rays, and the foliage grows taller and is more finely cut than that of Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed susan) or Rudbeckia fulgida (orange coneflower). Sweet coneflower is also quite long-lived, whereas its similar-looking cousins are biennials or short-lived perennials.

All of Illinois’ native Rudbeckia species are keystone plants, hosting at least 20 species of Lepidoptera and supplying 29 specialist bees with the pollen they require for survival. R. subtomentosa is attractive to songbirds as well– goldfinches are particularly fond of the seeds and blossoms. Deer, on the other hand, leave it alone. Sweet coneflower can be found in prairies, open woods, and thickets statewide. It reaches 3 – 6 ft tall, and may bloom from July through November. This species prefers full or partial sun and moist to mesic, sandy loams– it is low-maintenance and easy to grow, but may become floppy and need staking in a pampered garden setting with too much fertilizer or overwatering. ‘Henry Eilers’ is a noteworthy horticultural selection from southern Illinois. Consider also the tall-growing cutleaf coneflower or wild goldenglow (Rudbeckia laciniata).

5) Rose milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)

Rose milkweed
Unlike many other ornamental plants, rose milkweed is known to thrive in wet, mucky clay. Cephas, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

An essential plant for butterfly gardens and rain gardens, rose or swamp milkweed is native to prairies, woodlands, marshes, and riparian corridors throughout Illinois– in a home landscape, it adapts beautifully to a variety of locations. Asclepias incarnata is the milkweed most preferred by female monarch butterflies for oviposition; more eggs are laid on this plant than any other species in the Midwest, and caterpillars love to munch its narrow, fine-pointed leaves. Large, showy umbels of deep pink, magenta, or white blossoms make rose milkweed a powerhouse pollinator magnet, attractive to a multitude of butterflies, bees, and other insects– hummingbirds also sip their nectar.

‘Cinderella,’ ‘Ice Ballet,’ and ‘Soulmate’ are popular cultivars, but local ecotype, genetically variable specimens will be most advantageous to ecosystems and better suited to regional climatic conditions. A. incarnata is one of few ornamentals that thrives in wet, mucky clay– it tolerates both average, well-drained soils and inundation. It performs best in full sun to partial shade and grows 4 – 5 ft from a deep taproot. It is easily grown, but difficult to transplant and is best left undisturbed once established.

Some gardeners may be bothered by oleander aphids, but they are soon dealt with by predaceous insects and peckish songbirds like hummingbirds, goldfinches, and warblers. Purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens), common milkweed (A. syriaca), butterfly weed (A. tuberosa), and whorled milkweed (A. verticillata) are also excellent choices– milkweed (Asclepias spp.) was designated the official Illinois State Wildflower in 2017.

6) Partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata)

Partridge pea blooms
Partridge pea is also known as “sensitive plant” because its leaflets fold up when touched! Cbaile19, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons

One of Illinois’ few annual prairie herbs, partridge pea (also known as golden cassia, prairie senna, sensitive plant, or sleeping plant) is a legume– as such, it shares a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia bacteria in its root nodules. These bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form via a process called nitrogen fixation, which allows it to thrive in poor soils (and makes it a friendly neighbor to other plants).

Partridge pea has fine, feathery, pinnately-compound leaves characteristic of the Fabaceae or pea family; the tiny bright green leaflets fold up at a touch (hence the nickname ‘sensitive plant’). Its bold yellow flowers sit atop slender stalks 2 – 3 ft tall and have an irregular, open shape. The uppermost of its five petals sometimes has deep crimson spots at its base. The showy blooms persist from June through October in Illinois and are attractive to bees and butterflies. Chamaecrista fasciculata is a larval host for several sulphur butterflies, including the cloudless (Phoebis sennae), orange (Colias eurytheme), and sleepy orange (Abaeis nicippe).

This species also has a fascinating association with ants; it has extrafloral nectaries that attract the tiny marching insects– in return for a sweet reward, the ants defend the plant against leaf-eating insects and seed predators. The seeds are coveted by a number of upland bird species, particularly northern bobwhite, quail, greater prairie-chickens (state-endangered), and ring-necked pheasants.

Partridge pea is widespread and common throughout Illinois, with the exception of a few northern counties– it grows in prairies, old fields, savannas, glades, and open areas along roadsides or railways. In a home landscape, it is easily cultivated in full sun to partial shade and moist to dry conditions. It tolerates a variety of loams, favoring poor soils because of reduced competition with other plants. It’s terrific for pocket prairies, wildflower meadows, bird gardens, and banks or slopes where it provides great erosion control. Many gardeners like it as a flowering ‘bridge plant’ that suppresses weeds and fills in space while nearby perennials are still becoming established.

7) Shooting star (Dodecatheon meadia)

Shooting star flowers
Shooting star is a great choice for beds and borders in your garden or as an underplanting for shrubs. C T Johansson, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

One of the most beautiful perennial wildflowers on the prairie, shooting star or prairie pointers is an exquisite spring ephemeral that is often cultivated in home landscapes– it’s a recipient of the Royal Horticultural Society’s prestigious Award of Garden Merit. This species is valued both for its ornamental qualities and its reliable performance. Its unusual flowers are borne in large umbels of 6 – 40 blooms, on slender stalks reaching 6 – 20 inches from a basal rosette– the leaves are paddle-shaped and gray-green. The inflorescences are deep pink, rosy purple, or white with backward-pointing petals and narrow, front-facing yellow tubes formed by united stamens ensconcing the pistil.

Shooting star has significant value for bumblebees (particularly queens), who are its principal pollinators and extract pollen via a special adaptation called buzz pollination. Dodecatheon meadia offers no nectar reward but remains an important early-season food source for foraging native bees (including digger bees, long-horned bees, and green metallic bees) who need the pollen for their young. Shooting star blooms from April to May and is found throughout Illinois, particularly in high-quality habitat (otherwise it may be rare or absent). It occurs in moist prairies, bluffs, and woods.

In a garden setting, shooting star does best in light, sandy, or acidic soils and partial shade. It appreciates decent moisture and good drainage during the growing season, and dry conditions during winter dormancy. It’s lovely for beds and borders, woodland or rock gardens, and as an underplanting for shrubs. If you live in northwest or west-central IL, consider also its jewel-bright but uncommon cousin, the amethyst shooting star (Dodecatheon amethystinum).

8) Wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)

Black swallowtail butterfly on wild bergamot flower
Wild bergamot is rich in nectar and therefore attracts many bees, hummingbirds, and butterflies. USFWS Midwest Region from United States, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Wild bergamot or beebalm (Monarda fistulosa) is often neglected in favor of its flashier cousin, scarlet beebalm (Monarda didyma) and its many cultivars and hybrids– unfortunately, though M. didyma is native to North America, it is adventive in Illinois. The Prairie State has 5 native Monarda species that are arrantly overlooked. M. fistulosa is the most common and widespread and is a showy bloomer itself. Its fragrant flowers are lilac-purple or fuchsia-pink and made up of wreaths of irregularly shaped, tubular corollas gathered into a head 1 – 3 inches across. Like little fireworks, they burst into bloom in mid-summer atop square stems 2 – 5 ft tall, and last about a month. Rich in nectar, the flowers are a lodestone for bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds. The hermit sphinx moth (Lintneria eremitus) and the gray marvel (Anterastria teratophora) feed on the leaves, but mammalian herbivores leave it alone.

Wild bergamot is a member of the Lamiaceae or mint family, and its spicy, oregano-scented foliage may cause indigestion in ungulates. It has long been used by humans, however, as a flavoring agent and in traditional medicine (particularly in teas made from the blossoms and leaves); recent studies suggest it has significant potential as an analgesic or anti-inflammatory drug as well.

Wild bergamot grows throughout the state (with the exception of a few southern counties) in prairies, pastures, savannas, glades, and woodlands. It thrives in a variety of sites, from full sun and bone-dry, poor soils to partial shade and rich, mesic loams. It can be susceptible to powdery mildew, but good drainage and proper air circulation should help prevent injury– pairing it with lower-growing perennials will also help mask late-season damage (while mimicking our native plant communities and providing additional ecological benefit). Leaving the seed heads up through the winter will attract goldfinches and other songbirds. Consider also low-growing Bradbury’s beebalm (Monarda bradburiana) and spotted horsemint (Monarda punctata).

9) Prairie alumroot (Heuchera richardsonii)

Prairie alumroot
Prairie alumroot’s round-lobed leaves are evergreen while its flowers bloom from April to July. Mathew Zappa / CC BY 4.0

A low-key, modest perennial groundcover that is suitable for pathways, edges, containers, and formal plantings, prairie alumroot or coral bells also happens to be irresistible to hummingbirds. Its numerous greenish or cream-colored bells have protruding vermillion anthers and are borne in erect, airy panicles. The leafless flower spikes rise 2 – 4 ft from a basal rosette of handsome foliage 1 – 2 ft tall. Prairie alumroot is long-lived, and its round-lobed, maple-like leaves are evergreen.

This species occurs in upland prairies, woodlands, and limestone glades in the northern ⅔ of Illinois (for southern IL, Heuchera americana is a fine substitute). Coral bells’ nectar-rich flowers bloom April – July and are attractive to hummingbirds, butterflies, and small native bees (especially Halictid and cellophane bees). Close inspection will reveal tiny scarlet ‘pollen pants’ on many of these bees! Prairie alumroot is easily grown in dry, sandy, or gravelly well-drained soils and full to partial sun. It has good tolerance to drought and clay but may need protection from browsing deer while becoming established. For a spectacular early summer show, plant en masse.

10) Prairie coreopsis (Coreopsis palmata)

Prairie coreopsis flower
Prairie coreopsis has lots to offer wildlife species, with hummingbirds attracted to its nectar, songbirds feeding on its seeds, and mammalian herbivores foraging on its leaves and stems. Ethan Rose / CC BY 4.0

One of the earliest blooming prairie composites, prairie coreopsis (also called finger coreopsis or stiff tickseed) comes into flower in June, before warm-season prairie grasses have a chance to overshadow its modest 3 ft-tall stems. This adroit timing ensures that the plant’s lemon-yellow blooms can be seen from a distance by potential pollinators. The flowers themselves are composed of numerous fertile disc florets ringed by 8 sterile rays with notched tips, and are 2 – 3 inches wide. They are borne on erect stems clothed in stiff, narrow leaves with three lobes that resemble birds’ feet. Coreopsis palmata sends forth just one multi-flowered stem per basal rosette, but each of these produces as many as 6 offspring per year. It spreads by rhizomes and can be a tad aggressive in optimal conditions, but this species is at its best when allowed to form clonal colonies– masses of sunny yellow blooms and mounds of fine-textured foliage (that turn an attractive red color in fall) can be quite impressive in a home landscape.

Prairie coreopsis is a keystone plant, hosting 7 species of Lepidoptera and 22 pollen-specialist bees in the state. Hummingbirds are fond of the nectar, and songbirds relish the seeds. Mammalian herbivores (including deer, horses, rabbits, and groundhogs) occasionally browse the leaves and stems. Prairie coreopsis occurs in most Illinois counties but is rare or absent in southeastern IL. It can be found in prairies, pastures, upland forest clearings, limestone glades, savannas, and open disturbed sites. It’s easy to cultivate in a garden setting with full sun and light, dry, sandy, or gravelly soils. Lanceleaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata) and tall coreopsis (Coreopsis tripteris) are also good selections.

11) Pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida)

Pale purple coneflowers
Pale purple coneflower is clay- and drought-tolerant, and thrives in dry, well-draining soil. Katie Kucera / CC BY 4.0

Hardy and adaptable, pale purple coneflower is a perennial herb that occurs throughout Illinois, with the exception of some southern counties; it can be found in glades, savannas, old fields, open disturbed sites, rocky woods, and black soil prairies. Echinacea pallida may have been an important part of gravel or dolomite prairies before these habitats were largely destroyed by development in IL.

In a home landscape, pale purple coneflower pairs beautifully with native grasses like sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), or switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)– these companion or understudy grasses help support the stout 2 – 4 ft stems of pale purple coneflower (which can become floppy in pampered gardens), and give a fine, textured contrast that showcases its breathtaking blooms. The composite flowers are about 3 inches across, and consist of a spiny, cinnamon-colored cone of disc florets ringed by a swirl of 12 – 20 languid rays. The delicate-looking ray florets may be pale lavender, violet, or a rose so faint it’s nearly white.

Echinacea pallida is a keystone plant that supports 6 pollen-specialist bees (as well as their generalist cousins). Caterpillars of the fascinating wavy-lined emerald moth (Synchlora aerata) feed on the flowerheads and cover themselves with petal fragments as camouflage, while the larvae of the silvery checkerspot butterfly (Chlosyne nycteis) dine on the downy, narrow basal leaves. Goldfinches can often be found perched on the prickly spent cones, noshing on seeds. Pale purple coneflower thrives in full sun and dry, well-drained soils. It is tolerant of clay and drought and is an excellent addition to pollinator gardens, pocket prairies, or wildflower meadows. Its more popular cousin, purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), is native to central and northeastern IL but is historically uncommon in the wild.

12) Compass plant (Silphium laciniatum)

Compass plant in bloom
Compass plant takes several years to reach maturity as it diverts most of its energy to extensive root production during this growth period. Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Named for the tendency of its large, deeply lobed leaves to orient themselves on a north-south axis, compass plant is an extraordinary herbaceous perennial of tallgrass prairies– it reaches between 6 – 12 ft tall on average and may live 100 years or more. Unlike its cousin, cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum), which has an unstoppable urge to reproduce and can be aggressive, compass plant may take several years to reach maturity. It follows the old adage of native plants: “the first year they sleep, the second year they creep, and the third year they leap.” During this period of seemingly slow growth, the plant is actually diverting most of its energy and carbon to extensive root production; its large central taproot can delve 15 ft deep. Once it has ‘dug in,’ compass plant is remarkably easy to maintain– it has fabulous drought tolerance and is able to withstand stiff competition from other plants.

A mature plant will produce between 6 – 30 sunshine-yellow composite flowers that bloom from July to September and are attractive to bees and butterflies. Silphium is a keystone genus in Eastern Temperate Forests that hosts 10 species of pollen-specialist bees. Compass plant also supports songbirds by providing tasty seeds and a sturdy perch from which to hunt insects. In a home landscape, this species prefers full sun and deep, rich loams. It tolerates a variety of well-drained soils and moist to dry conditions. Consider also prairie dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum) and wholeleaf rosinweed (Silphium integrifolium). All of the rosinweeds exude a resinous sap from their stems that has long been used as chewing gum by Indigenous Americans.

13) Missouri ironweed (Vernonia missurica)

Missouri ironweed
The Missouri ironweed is a showy plant with magenta flowers that bloom from August to October. Katherine Parys / CC BY 4.0

The showiest of the ironweeds, Vernonia missurica has dark green, narrowly lanceolate foliage (sometimes with a purplish tint)– the undersides of the leaves and its reddish stems are covered with a soft, white pubescence that gives the plant a frosted, silvery appearance. Plump plum-colored buds with scalloped phyllaries burst into vivid magenta flowers in August and bloom through October. The fluffy inflorescences are composed of 30 – 60 disc florets and are borne in large, flat-topped corymbs that serve up a pollinator buffet; they are especially irresistible to monarch butterflies.

Missouri ironweed occurs throughout Illinois, with the exception of the NE corner of the state– it is named after the Missouri River, which empties into the Mississippi near Madison County, IL. Its namesake is a convenient mnemonic to help remember this species’ preferred habitat; Missouri ironweed thrives in riparian corridors, mesic prairies, and wetlands, but is also an opportunistic colonizer of disturbed sites, pastures, and roadside ditches. It likes partial sun and average to moist loams that may be rich and fertile, clayey, or gritty and gravelly. Missouri ironweed grows up to about 6 feet tall.

Mammalian herbivores (including cattle and other livestock) leave this plant alone due to its bitter-tasting leaves. At least 12 species of pollen-specialist bees depend on Vernonia in Eastern Temperate Forests. Don’t let its common name fool you– though it is tough as nails, Missouri ironweed is no weed. It’s a beautiful, important prairie species that is beloved by butterflies and other beneficial insects.

Rachel O
About the author

Rachel O

I am passionate about conservation, ecology, and gardening for wildlife. I am a certified Missouri Master Naturalist with knowledge of birds, insects, and herptiles– I volunteer doing horticulture and restoration work for several local organizations.

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